Approximately five thousand years back, ancient sages with their naked eyes and yoga powers discovered that all the planets in our solar system revolve around Sun (before the modern world discovered it with modern equipment) and that life on earth is sustained by Sun.
This is the reason why Sun is called the karaka of AAatma (Soul) as well as AAatma bala (self confidence). It is imperative to know here that Surya is called the Soul of Kaalapurusha (time personified) - Kaalaatma (Text - Jataka Paarijatam).
Bhagavad-Gita, which is the essence of the Hindu philosophy and was told to Arjuna by Lord Krishna himself, says:
वेदाविनाशिनं नित्यं य एनमजमव्ययं
कथं स पुरुष: पार्था कं खातयति हन्ति कम्
vedävinäçinaà nityaà ya enamajamavyayam|
kathaà sa puruñaù pärtha kaà ghätayati hanti kam|
O Partha (Arjuna), one who knows this soul as indestructible, unborn and incapable of getting lost, who does he kill by whom and whom does he kill? (One who knows that true state of Aatma is aware that no one can kill the Aatma nor does the Aatma kill anyone).
Surya is addressed by different names in ancient texts: -
Ravi, Aaditya, Bhaskar, Ahaskar, Tapan, PUshaa, Aruna, Arka, Adri, Vanajavanapati, Dinamani, NalinIvilasI, PadminIsha, Diwaakar, MartaNDa, USNarashmi, USNaaMshu, Prabhaakar, Vibhaavasu, Kshapaakara etc.
Karakatwam/Attributes of Sun
Simha/Leo (its own rasi from 20 to 30 degrees)
Moola Trikona Sign
Simha/Leo (its own rasi from 10 to 20 degrees)
Mesha/Aries. Deep exaltation at 10 degrees
10th Position from Lagna
Forests and Hills
Steady, Valorous, Cruel/Papa (Inauspicious)
Rough and thick
Guna / Nature
Like human beings/square
Organ in Body
Bones, Eyes (specially the right eye)
Bulky, with large and strong arms
Kshatriya (Warrior Class)
Not very tall
15 years (while calculating age aspects during Prasnam)
Shiva / Agni
Related to Head, high fever, consumption, loose motions, disease to heart, eyes etc
Trees and its parts
Thick trees and roots
(Vata, Pitta, Kapha)
Pitta. The pitta dosha assists the body fire or Agni, which plays a major role in body’s metabolic activities. The locations where pitta dominates are digestive system, skin, eyes, brain, and blood. Pitta maintains body temperature. The secretions like digestive juices pigments like melanin (bhrajaka pitta), haemoglobin (ranjaka pitta) are types of Pitta. Pitta is dominant in regions of Umbilicus, stomach, sweat, lymph, blood, eyes and skin.
King, Devata, Father, Soul, Life, Bones, Light,
Mantras, Medicine, Astrology, Wool, Wood, Thorny Trees, Eyes, Saffron, Resistance Power (against diseases), Rise of Knowledge, Piety of Mind etc
Surya is strong when in Mesha/Aries, Simha/Leo, in its own hora, drekkana, Sunday, at noon, at the time of its entry into a rasi, while occupying its own exaltation/friend’s amsa (Navamsa) as also possesses directional strength in the 10th bhava/house from Lagna.
The recital of the below Surya mantra will eliminate (reduce) and any troubles in one’s life due to his inimical placement. It is always good to recite the Mantra 108 times, especially on Sundays.
जपाकुसुमसंकाशं काश्यपेयं महाद्युतिम्
तमोरिं सर्वपापघ्नं प्रणतोस्मि दिवाकरम्
japäkusumasaìkäçaà käçyapeyaà mahädyutim|
tamorià sarvapäpaghnaà praëato'smi diväkaram||